Upon this road so often tried by happy experience, there is no reason why we should hesitate to go forward with all speed. For they have always unanimously maintained that nature, rather the Creator Himself, has given man the right of private ownership not only that individuals may be able to provide for themselves and their families but also that the goods which the Creator destined for the entire family of mankind may through this institution truly serve this purpose. Therefore, those in power should be sure that the more perfectly a graduated order is kept among the various associations, in observance of the principle of “subsidiary function,” the stronger social authority and effectiveness will be the happier and more prosperous the condition of the State. First, so as to avoid the reefs of individualism and collectivism. By this statement he plainly condemned the shallowness of those who think that this most difficult matter is easily solved by the application of a single rule or measure — and one quite false. Quadragesimo anno Its theme is a strong condemnation of the control of international finance and credit by a small number of financiers who thus supply "so to speak, the life blood to the entire economic body . 19. On the basis of the long period of experience, it cannot be rash to say that Leo’s Encyclical has proved itself the Magna Charta upon which all Christian activity in the social field ought to be based, as on a foundation. Mercier.” Paris, Editions “Spes,” 1931. This group, too, is being crushed with hardships and with difficulties, to which Our Predecessor devotes attention in several places in his Encyclical and which We Ourselves have touched upon more than once in Our present Letter. 134. #Canonization. Yet the Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, compared with the rest had this special distinction that at a time when it was most opportune and actually necessary to do so, it laid down for all mankind the surest rules to solve aright that difficult problem of human relations called “the social question.”. 63. Anyone is free to join a syndicate or not, and only within these limits can this kind of syndicate be called free; for syndical dues and special assessments are exacted of absolutely all members of every specified calling or profession, whether they are workers or employers; likewise all are bound by the labor agreements made by the legally recognized syndicate. Those who work solely toward such ends have, therefore, no reason to become socialists. Share. Venerable Brethren and Beloved Children, Health and Apostolic Benediction. 54. Therefore, where the social and individual nature of work is neglected, it will be impossible to evaluate work justly and pay it according to justice. For they are the reason why the Church could, even though undeservedly, have the appearance of and be charged with taking the part of the rich and with being quite unmoved by the necessities and hardships of those who have been deprived, as it were, of their natural inheritance. 143. Property, that is, “capital,” has undoubtedly long been able to appropriate too much to itself. It introduced the term ‘social justice’ into the social teachings, using it to describe the just relationships between groups in society required by recognition of the demands of the common good (n 57). With regard to civil authority, Leo Xlll, boldly breaking through the confines imposed by Liberalism, fearlessly taught that government must not be thought a mere guardian of law and of good order, but rather must put forth every effort so that “through the entire scheme of laws and institutions . 49. Since in Our Encyclical, The Christian Education of Youth,[56] We have fully taught the principles that Christian education insists on and the ends it pursues, the contradiction between these principles and ends and the activities and aims of this socialism that is pervading morality and culture is so clear and evident that no demonstration is required here. Therefore on the fifteenth day of May, 1891, that long awaited voice thundered forth; neither daunted by the arduousness of the problem nor weakened by age but with vigorous energy, it taught the whole human family to strike out in the social question upon new paths. Rerum Novarum. Encyclical, On the Conditions of Workers, cf. Truly the mind shudders at the thought of the grave dangers to which the morals of workers (particularly younger workers) and the modesty of girls and women are exposed in modern factories; when we recall how often the present economic scheme, and particularly the shameful housing conditions, create obstacles to the family bond and normal family life; when we remember how many obstacles are put in the way of the proper observance of Sundays and Holy Days; and when we reflect upon the universal weakening of that truly Christian sense through which even rude and unlettered men were wont to value higher things, and upon its substitution by the single preoccupation of getting in any way whatsoever one’s daily bread. For under nature’s guidance it comes to pass that just as those who are joined together by nearness of habitation establish towns, so those who follow the same industry or profession — whether in the economic or other field — form guilds or associations, so that many are wont to consider these self-governing organizations, if not essential, at least natural to civil society. Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, 31. This unifying force is present not only in the producing of goods or the rendering of services — in which the employers and employees of an identical Industry or Profession collaborate jointly — but also in that common good, to achieve which all Industries and Professions together ought, each to the best of its ability, to cooperate amicably. 30. 82. For in that school of the spirit, not only are the best of Christians developed but true apostles also are trained for every condition of life and are enkindled with the fire of the heart of Christ. You know, Venerable Brethren and Beloved Children, and understand full well the wonderful teaching which has made the Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, illustrious forever. Rerum Novarum: the dignity of labor, the rights of workers to organize, etc. 5. Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, 36. 77. 85. Let well-merited acclamations of praise be bestowed upon you and at the same time upon all those, both clergy and laity, who We rejoice to see, are daily participating and valiantly helping in this same great work, Our beloved sons engaged in Catholic Action, who with a singular zeal are undertaking with Us the solution of the social problems in so far as by virtue of her divine institution this is proper to and devolves upon the Church. Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, 25. 42. Cf. At last, admonished “by the consciousness of His Apostolic Office”[7] lest silence on his part might be regarded as failure in his duty[8] he decided, in virtue of the Divine Teaching Office entrusted to him, to address not only the whole Church of Christ but all mankind. He goes into considerable detail in explaining and commending these associations and expounds with a truly wonderful wisdom their nature, purpose, timeliness, rights, duties, and regulations. 17. Although pained by the injustice and downcast in fatherly sorrow, it is so far from Our thought to repulse or to disown children who have been miserably deceived and have strayed so far from the truth and salvation that We cannot but invite them with all possible solicitude to return to the maternal bosom of the Church. In the earlier social encyclicals the criticism of Communism described it as a system violating human rights: e.g., the right to own property. For then only will the social economy be rightly established and attain its purposes when all and each are supplied with all the goods that the wealth and resources of nature, technical achievement, and the social organization of economic life can furnish. For it boldly attacked and overturned the idols of Liberalism, ignored long-standing prejudices, and was in advance of its time beyond all expectation, so that the slow of heart disdained to study this new social philosophy and the timid feared to scale so lofty a height. Quadragesimo Anno, as we know, was an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI in 1931 which contained a call for 'vocational associations'. 4. so that no one can breathe against their will." And numerous are the Catholics who, although they clearly understand that Christian principles can never be abandoned or diminished seem to turn their eyes to the Holy See and earnestly beseech Us to decide whether this form of Socialism has so far recovered from false doctrines that it can be accepted without the sacrifice of any Christian principle and in a certain sense be baptized. 4. “Union internationale d’Etudes sociales fondee a Malines, en 1920, sous la presidence du Card. 111. St. Thomas, Summa theologica, II-II, Q. Moreover, Leo XIII wisely taught “that God has left the limits of private possessions to be fixed by the industry of men and institutions of peoples.”[32] That history proves ownership, like other elements of social life, to be not absolutely unchanging, We once declared as follows: “What divers forms has property had, from that primitive form among rude and savage peoples, which may be observed in some places even in our time, to the form of possession in the patriarchal age; and so further to the various forms under tyranny (We are using the word tyranny in its classical sense); and then through the feudal and monarchial forms down to the various types which are to be found in more recent times.”[33] That the State is not permitted to discharge its duty arbitrarily is, however, clear. 55. Quadragesimo Anno Reconstruction of the Social Order Pope Pius XI - 1931 To Our Venerable Brethren, the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops and other Ordinaries in Peace and Communion with the Holy See, and Likewise to All the Faithful of the Catholic World. the State has been overwhelmed and crushed by almost infinite tasks and duties. 56 Encyclical, Divini illius Magistri Dec 31 1929. Want to be automatically notified of new documents? 149. Conclusions of the greatest importance follow from this twofold character which nature has impressed on human work, and it is in accordance with these that wages ought to be regulated and established. Encyclicals take their names from the words with which they begin Quadregismo anno "Forty years" was timed to mark the fortieth anniversary of an earlier encyclical On the Condition of Workers given by Leo XIII. The Encyclical itself, whose anniversary we are celebrating, is clearest proof that it is the height of injustice to hurl these calumnies and reproaches at the Church and her teaching. 103. That We, in keeping with Our fatherly solicitude, may answer their petitions, We make this pronouncement: Whether considered as a doctrine, or an historical fact, or a movement, Socialism, if it remains truly Socialism, even after it has yielded to truth and justice on the points which we have mentioned, cannot be reconciled with the teachings of the Catholic Church because its concept of society itself is utterly foreign to Christian truth. No less praise must be accorded to the leaders of workers’ organizations who, disregarding their own personal advantage and concerned solely about the good of their fellow members, are striving prudently to harmonize the just demands of their members with the prosperity of their whole occupation and also to promote these demands, and who do not let themselves be deterred from so noble a service by any obstacle or suspicion. Although We, therefore, deem it superfluous to warn upright and faithful children of the Church regarding the impious and iniquitous character of Communism, yet We cannot without deep sorrow contemplate the heedlessness of those who apparently make light of these impending dangers, and with sluggish inertia allow the widespread propagation of doctrine which seeks by violence and slaughter to destroy society altogether. Encyclicals Worth Knowing: Quadragesimo Anno Quadragesimo Anno and its predecessor, Rerum Novarum, are the cornerstones of the Church's Social Magisterium. It will be able to do this the more easily as it rids itself of those burdens which, as We have stated above, are not properly its own. Attention must be given also to another matter that is closely connected with the foregoing. 14. For We are now confronted, as more than once before in the history of the Church, with a world that in large part has almost fallen back into paganism. Bob Read. Moreover, just as inhabitants of a town are wont to found associations with the widest diversity of purposes, which each is quite free to join or not, so those engaged in the same industry or profession will combine with one another into associations equally free for purposes connected in some manner with the pursuit of the calling itself. If Socialism, like all errors, contains some truth (which, moreover, the Supreme Pontiffs have never denied), it is based nevertheless on a theory of human society peculiar to itself and irreconcilable with true Christianity. To Our Venerable Brethren, the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops and other Ordinaries in Peace and Communion with the Holy See, and Likewise to All the Faithful of the Catholic World. Under the guise of affection it tries in particular to attract children of tender age and win them to itself, although it also embraces the whole population in its scope in order finally to produce true socialists who would shape human society to the tenets of Socialism. They do not, indeed, allow their science to lie hidden behind learned walls. quadragesimo anno [СОРОКОВИЙ РІК] ВЕРХОВНОГО ПОНТИФІКА. 57. Yet, if we look into the matter more carefully and more thoroughly, we shall clearly perceive that, preceding this ardently desired social restoration, there must be a renewal of the Christian spirit, from which so many immersed in economic life have, far and wide, unhappily fallen away, lest all our efforts be wasted and our house be builded not on a rock but on shifting sand.[62]. If, however, matters come to an extreme crisis, it must be finally considered whether the business can continue or the workers are to be cared for in some other way. But what if Socialism has really been so tempered and modified as to the class struggle and private ownership that there is in it no longer anything to be censured on these points? 59. A difficult task, certainly, is thus imposed on priests, and to meet it, all who are growing up as the hope of the Church, must be duly prepared by an intensive study of the social question. But free competition, while justified and certainly useful provided it is kept within certain limits, clearly cannot direct economic life — a truth which the outcome of the application in practice of the tenets of this evil individualistic spirit has more than sufficiently demonstrated. 62. For, according to Christian teaching, man, endowed with a social nature, is placed on this earth so that by leading a life in society and under an authority ordained of God[54] he may fully cultivate and develop all his faculties unto the praise and glory of his Creator; and that by faithfully fulfilling the duties of his craft or other calling he may obtain for himself temporal and at the same time eternal happiness. Its theme is a strong condemnation of the control of international finance and credit by a small number of financiers who thus supply "so to speak, the life blood to the entire economic body . Pope Pius IX marked the anniversary of "Rerum Novarum" with an … 27. Hunton, George K. "Quadragesimo Anno and Interracial Justice." Nevertheless, it has been officially stated that this legally recognized syndicate does not prevent the existence, without legal status, however, of other associations made up of persons following the same calling. But to abuse the years of childhood and the limited strength of women is grossly wrong. Again some stops before getting into Quadragesimo Anno… At some point in this blog I will claim that Liberation Theology is a part, if not the best of Catholic Social Teaching. 9. If you would like to be automatically notified of site additions, changes, and when an entry for a Papal or Church document is added, become a fan of our Facebook page. 31. 93. 8. Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, 14. 21. All this can be achieved in no wise except through the maintenance of a certain and definite order. From that time on, fuller means of livelihood have been more securely obtained; for not only did works of beneficence and charity begin to multiply at the urging of the Pontiff, but there have also been established everywhere new and continuously expanding organizations in which workers, draftsmen, farmers and employees of every kind, with the counsel of the Church and frequently under the leadership of her priests, give and receive mutual help and support. 46. Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, 67. 133. However, in spite of such great agreement, there were some who were not a little disturbed; and so it happened that the teaching of Leo Xlll, so noble and lofty and so utterly new to worldly ears, was held suspect by some, even among Catholics, and to certain ones it even gave offense. In such a situation, certainly most serious, a feeling of close relationship and a Christian concord of minds ought to prevail and function effectively among employers and workers. This year marks the fortieth (40th) anniversary of the martyrial death of Saint Oscar Romero. Furthermore, after the terrible war, when the statesmen of the leading nations were attempting to restore peace on the basis of a thorough reform of social conditions, did not they, among the norms agreed upon to regulate in accordance with justice and equity the labor of the workers, give sanction to many points that so remarkably coincide with Leo’s principles and instructions as to seem consciously taken therefrom? A right proportion among wages and salaries also contributes directly to the same result; and with this is closely connected a right proportion in the prices at which the goods are sold that are produced by the various occupations, such as agriculture, manufacturing, and others. 108. Socialism is, they say, the Gospel of Envy. In the first place, the worker must be paid a wage sufficient to support him and his family. 35. And in the application of natural resources to human use the law of nature, or rather God’s will promulgated by it, demands that right order be observed. 10. Let it be sufficient to mention some of these only: Leo Xlll’s Apostolic Letter Praeclara, June 20, 1894, and Encyclical Graves de Communi, Jan. 18, 1901; Pius X’s Motu Proprio De Actione Populari Christiana, Dec. 8, 1903; Benedict XV’s Encyclical Ad Beatissimi, Nov. 1, 1914; Pius IX’s Encyclical Ubi Arcano, Dec. 23, 1922, and Encyclical Rite Expiatis, Apr. On the contrary, the worker’s human dignity in it must be recognized. Who would deny that human society is in most urgent need of this cure now? XVI-335; ed. As history abundantly proves, it is true that on account of changed conditions many things which were done by small associations in former times cannot be done now save by large associations. Also, as anyone may see, many young men, who by reason of their talent or wealth will soon occupy high places among the leaders of society, are studying social problems with deeper interest, and they arouse the joyful hope that they will dedicate themselves wholly to the restoration of society. The sordid love of wealth, which is the shame and great sin of our age, will be opposed in actual fact by the gentle yet effective law of Christian moderation which commands man to seek first the Kingdom of God and His justice, with the assurance that, by virtue of God’s kindness and unfailing promise, temporal goods also, in so far as he has need of them, shall be given him besides.[69]. ПІЯ xi ВИСОКОДОСТОЙНИМ БРАТАМ ПАТРІАРХАМ, ПРИМАТАМ, АРХИЄПИСКОПАМ, ЄПИСКОПАМ. What the Lord requires of us is this: “to act justly, to love tenderly, and to … Theme images by luoman. And surely it is not of its own nature vicious. After he had slain Sihon the king of the Amorites, which dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, which dwelt at Astaroth in Edrei. 47. For everyone knows that an excessive lowering of wages, or their increase beyond due measure, causes unemployment. Pope Pius XI would carry the theme forward in 1931 in his encyclical Quadragesimo anno ("Forty years later"). The Church did not let these rich fountains lie quiescent in her bosom, but from them drew copiously for the common good of the longed-for peace. As the useful and well attended courses instituted in Catholic universities, colleges, and seminaries, the social congresses and “weeks” that are held at frequent intervals with most successful results, the study groups that are promoted, and finally the timely and sound publications that are disseminated everywhere and in every possible way, clearly show, these men bring their science out into the full light and stress of life. 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